首页学科概况研究中心教学信息网络教学课程资源科研信息特色医疗导诊服务专科护理

微创甲状腺
功能性鼻内窥镜微创外科
腮腺手术
面神经疾病
人工耳蜗植入
睡眠医学与鼾症
微创声带手术和嗓音外科
头颈外科
中耳疾病


 
首页>>特色医疗>>微创甲状腺

 
您了解甲状腺吗?
薛涛 转载DXY

 

 

When Your Thyroid Goes Awry

Does fatigue drag you down day after day? Do you have brain fog, weight gain, chills, or hair loss? Or is the opposite true for you: Are you often revved up, sweaty, or anxious? Your thyroid gland could be to blame. This great regulator of body and mind sometimes goes haywire, particularly in women. Getting the right treatment is critical to feel your best and avoid serious health problems.

 

你的甲状腺何会出

你是否日复一日感到疲?你有头晕,体重增加,畏寒,或者脱发吗?或者是你来正好是相反的情形:跃跃?出汗不止?或者焦不安?你的甲状腺可能是罪魁首。一身体和精神的巨大调节器,有会出问题,尤其在女性。正确的治至关重要,你才能感到状良好,避免重的健康问题

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

What Is the Thyroid Gland?

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. It produces hormones that control the speed of your metabolism -- the system that helps the body use energy. Thyroid disorders can slow down or rev up your metabolism by disrupting the production of thyroid hormones. When hormone levels become too low or too high, you may experience a wide range of symptoms.

 

什么是甲状腺?

甲状腺是一种蝴蝶形的腺体,位于前。它生激素能控制新的速度--帮助身体利用能量的系。甲状腺功能失调时,通甲状腺激素的生,会出减慢或者加快。激素水平低或者高,都会出一系列的症状。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Symptom: Weight Gain or Loss

An unexplained change in weight is one of the most common signs of a thyroid disorder. Weight gain may signal low levels of thyroid hormones, a condition called hypothyroidism. In contrast, if the thyroid produces more hormones than the body needs, you may lose weight unexpectedly. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism is far more common.

 

症状:体重增加或减

无法解的体重化是甲状腺功能紊乱最常的体征之一。体重增加是甲状腺激素水平低下的信号,又称作甲状腺功能低下。相反,如果甲状腺生出太多的激素超出了身体需要,你就会有意想不到的体重下降。被称甲亢。(比而言)甲低更常

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Symptom: Swelling in the Neck

A swelling or enlargement in the neck is a visible clue that something may be wrong with the thyroid. A goiter may occur with either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Sometimes swelling in the neck can result from thyroid cancer or nodules, lumps that grow inside the thyroid. It can also be due to a cause unrelated to the thyroid.

 

症状:

物或者大甲状腺出问题的明线索。甲状腺大在甲状功能低下或者亢进时都可以出。有是因甲癌或者,甲状腺内部有包。也可能是因和甲状腺无关的其他原因。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Symptom: Changes in Heart Rate

Thyroid hormones affect nearly every organ in the body and can influence how quickly the heart beats. People with hypothyroidism may notice their heart rate is slower than usual. Hyperthyroidism may cause the heart to speed up. It can also trigger increased blood pressure and the sensation of a pounding heart, known as heart palpitations.

 

症状:心率改

甲状腺激素几乎可以影响体内的每一个器官,也能影响心率。甲低的患者可以出心率慢,甲亢相反。而且能致血升高和心悸。

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Symptom: Changes in Energy or Mood

Thyroid disorders can have a noticeable impact on your energy level and mood. Hypothyroidism tends to make people feel tired, sluggish, and depressed. Hyperthyroidism can cause anxiety, problems sleeping, restlessness, and irritability.

 

症状:能量或者脾气的

甲状腺功能失致明的能量水平和脾气的改。甲低患者会感,反慢,情低落。甲亢患者可致焦,睡眠障碍,躁不安,和易激惹。

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Symptom: Hair Loss

Hair loss is another sign that your thyroid hormones may be out of balance. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause hair to fall out. In most cases, the hair will grow back once the thyroid disorder is treated.

 

症状:脱

是甲状腺功能失衡的另一个表。甲低甲亢都有大多数情况下,甲功恢复正常后,头发会重新起来。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Symptom: Feeling Too Cold or Hot

Thyroid disorders can disrupt the ability to regulate body temperature. People with hypothyroidism may feel cold more often than usual. Hyperthyroidism tends to have the opposite effect, causing excessive sweating and an aversion to heat.

 

症状:畏寒或怕

甲状腺功能紊乱会破坏机体的体温调节能力。甲低患者常会比平常得冷。甲亢相反,多汗怕

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Other Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism can cause many other symptoms, including:

 

Dry skin and brittle nails

Numbness or tingling in the hands

Constipation

Heavy menstrual periods

 

甲低的其他症状

皮肤干燥和脆甲症

手指麻木和刺感

便秘

期延

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Other Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism can also cause additional symptoms, such as:

 

Muscle weakness or trembling hands

Vision problems

Diarrhea

Irregular menstrual periods

甲亢的其他症状

肌无力或者手

视觉问题

腹泻

期不

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Thyroid Disorder or Menopause?

Because thyroid disorders can cause changes in your menstrual cycle and mood, the symptoms are sometimes mistaken for menopause. If a thyroid problem is suspected, a simple blood test can determine whether the true culprit is menopause or a thyroid disorder ? or a combination of the two.

 

甲状腺失调还绝经期表

甲状腺功能失可以致月周期和情化,其症状常被当做绝经期表(即更年期)。如果怀疑甲状腺有问题,一个简单的血液学测试可以明确真正的首是绝经还是甲状腺问题,或者是两者都有。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Who Should Be Tested?

Everyone should be screened for thyroid dysfunction every five years, beginning at age 35, according to the American Thyroid Association. People with symptoms or risk factors may need tests more often. Hypothyroidism more frequently affects women over age 60. Hyperthyroidism is also more common in women and in people over 60. A family history raises your risk of either disorder.

那些人应该接受检测

根据ATA的建,从35开始,每隔5年,每人都应该进行一次甲状腺机能的检查。如果有症状或者其他危因素则应检测多次。甲低多60以上的女性。甲亢也是女性和60以上者多。家族史会增加患病的风险

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Thyroid Neck Check

A careful look in the mirror may help you spot an enlarged thyroid that needs a doctor's attention. Tip your head back, take a drink of water, and as you swallow, examine your neck below the Adam's apple and above the collarbone. Look for bulges or protrusions, then repeat the process a few times. See a doctor promptly if you see a bulge or lump.

 

甲状腺检查

子仔细观察可以帮助你发现肿大的甲状腺,需要医生触。抬一口水,当你吞咽的候,检查甲状骨以下,骨以上的部。检查有无肿胀或者突起,重复几次。如果有肿胀或者肿块,要立即去看医生。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Diagnosing Thyroid Disorders

If your doctor suspects a thyroid disorder, a blood test can help provide an answer. This test measures the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), a kind of master hormone that regulates the work of the thyroid gland. If TSH is high, it typically means that your thyroid function is too low (hypothyroid). If TSH is low, then it generally means the thyroid is overactive (hyperthyroid.) Your doctor may also check levels of other thyroid hormones in your blood.

 

甲状腺疾病的

如果医生怀疑甲状腺有问题,一血液检测可以帮助找到答案。检测促甲状腺激素(TSH)的水平,一种重要的激素可以调节甲状腺的工作。如果TSH增高,它通常意味着甲状腺功能太低(甲低)。如果TSH低,它通常提示甲状腺功能于活(甲亢)。医生检查血液中其他甲状腺激素的水平。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Hashimoto's Disease

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's disease. This is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks the thyroid gland. The result is damage to the thyroid, preventing it from producing enough hormones. Hashimoto's disease tends to run in families.

Hashimoto病(本)

甲低最常的原因是本氏病。是一种自体免疫性疾病,甲状腺受到自体攻果甲状腺被破坏,不能生足的甲状腺激素。本氏病有家族性。

 

Hashimoto是个小日本,他首先发现病,于是以其名字命名。人家那个什么的是他本人,所以病是一种自体攻自己的疾病,专业术语叫自体免疫性疾病。住了?

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Other Causes of Hypothyroidism

In some cases, hypothyroidism results from a problem with the pituitary gland, which is at the base of the brain. This gland produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which tells the thyroid to do its job. If your pituitary gland does not produce enough TSH, your levels of thyroid hormones will fall. Other causes of hypothyroidism include temporary inflammation of the thyroid or medications that affect thyroid function.

 

甲低的其他原因

一些情况下,甲低可由垂体疾病致,垂体位于大底部。腺体TSH,促甲状腺工作。如果垂体不能生足多的TSH,甲状腺激素水平就会下降。其他致甲低的原因包括甲状腺炎和影响甲状腺功能的物。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Graves' Disease

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. This is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the thyroid gland and triggers the release of high levels of thyroid hormones. One of the hallmarks of Graves' disease is a visible and uncomfortable swelling behind the eyes.

 

Grave氏病

甲亢最常的原因是Grave氏病。是一种自体免疫性疾病,攻自身甲状腺,使其放出多的甲状腺激素。Grave氏病的特征是明的、不舒服的眼球突出。

 

:可能的原因是眼球后有共同抗原。

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Other Causes of Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism can also result from thyroid nodules. These are lumps that develop inside the thyroid and sometimes begin producing thyroid hormones. Large lumps may create a noticeable goiter. Smaller lumps can be detected with ultrasound.

 

甲亢的其他原因

甲亢也可由而来。些甲状腺内的肿块生甲状腺激素。大的肿块可以有明的甲状腺大。小的需由超声出。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Thyroid Disorder Complications

When left untreated, hypothyroidism can raise your cholesterol levels and make you more likely to have a stroke or heart attack. In severe cases, very low levels of thyroid hormones can trigger a loss of consciousness and life-threatening drop in body temperature. Untreated hyperthyroidism can cause serious heart problems and brittle bones.

 

甲状腺疾病的并

如果不加治,甲低会使胆固醇水平升高,患者更容易有中或者心梗。,极低的甲状腺素水平可以引识丧失,以及危及生命的体温下降。甲亢不加治疗则重的心脏问题和骨疏松。

 

:有于此,甲亢或者甲低充甲状腺激素者,要同时补钙剂,以避免骨质发问题

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Treating Hypothyroidism

If you are diagnosed with hypothyroidism, your doctor will most likely prescribe thyroid hormones in the form of a pill. This usually leads to noticeable improvements within a couple of weeks. Long-term treatment can result in more energy, lower cholesterol levels, and gradual weight loss. Most people with hypothyroidism will need to take thyroid hormones for the rest of their lives.

 

甲低的治

甲低者,医生会其开具甲状腺激素的丸实际是片lvygwyt注)。几周后,症状会有明改善。期治致精力剩,胆固醇水平下降,和体重下降。大多数甲低患者需要生服

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Treating Hyperthyroidism

The most common treatment for hyperthyroidism is antithyroid medication, which aims to lower the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid. The condition may eventually go away, but many people need to remain on medication for the long term. Other drugs may be given to reduce symptoms such as rapid pulse and tremors. Another option is radioactive iodine, which destroys the thyroid gland over the course of 6 to 18 weeks. Once the gland is destroyed, or removed by surgery, most patients must begin taking thyroid hormones in pill form.

 

甲亢的治

最常法是抗甲状腺物,降低甲状腺激素水平。甲亢状可能最会消失,但是很多人需要继续长期服。其它物用于症,比如脉快和震。另一选择放射性碘,它可以在6-18周内破坏甲状腺。甲状腺一旦被破坏,或者手切除,大多数患者又必服用甲状腺激素的丸

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Surgery for Thyroid Disorders

Removing the thyroid gland can cure hyperthyroidism, but the procedure is only recommended if antithyroid drugs don't work, or if there is a large goiter. Surgery may also be recommended for patients with thyroid nodules. Once the thyroid is removed, most patients require daily supplements of thyroid hormones to avoid developing hypothyroidism.

 

甲状腺疾病的手

切除甲状腺可以治甲亢,但限于物治无效或者甲状腺大者。手也适用于合并有甲状腺结节者。一旦甲状腺被切除,大多数患者需要每天充甲状腺激素,以避免甲低。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

What About Thyroid Cancer?

Thyroid cancer is uncommon and is among the least deadly. The main symptom is a lump or swelling in the neck, but less than 10 percent of thyroid nodules turn out to be cancerous. When thyroid cancer is diagnosed, it is most often treated with surgery followed by radioactive iodine therapy or external radiation therapy.

 

甲癌相关的知

甲癌少且致死性最低。主要症状是肿胀肿块10%以下的甲状腺结节会有癌。确甲癌后,最常的治是手,后放射性碘或者外照射治

 

的比较笼统详细的了解需要看,或者浏览我以前的帖子甲状腺疾病(人第七版)交流和讨论,新添加手术图片,迎指正[]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

看所有投票

已得 1 同行票!

lvygwyt edited on 2010-11-08 11:59

 

成功,感大家支持! 军铁甲夜守关,朝臣侍漏五更寒。山寺日高僧未起,看来名利不如

 

举报

经验】明明白白才是真(how to write clearly?

 

lvygwyt

 

十年磨一,冷暖人知?

丁香园中站友

 

发贴: 1030

: 163

得票: 254

: 线

丁当: 1770

 

             短消息

            

2010-11-08 11:37        

 

 

得票

5

Hyperthyroidism Pictures Slideshow: Keep Your Thyroid in Check

 

甲亢片:常常检查你的甲状腺

 

What Is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which an overactive thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in the blood. Thyrotoxicosis is a toxic condition that is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones from any cause. Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by an excessive intake of thyroid hormone or by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Because both physicians and patients often use these words interchangeably, we will take some liberty by using the term "hyperthyroidism" throughout this slideshow.

什么是甲亢?

甲亢指的是一种状于活的甲状腺生大量的甲状腺激素入血液循。毒性甲状腺是一种中毒状,由任何原因生的量甲状腺素所致。可以是甲状腺素的吸收多,也可是甲状腺本身多。些名词经常被医生和患者混用,套片子里我用的是甲亢

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

What Are Thyroid Hormones?

Thyroid hormones stimulate the metabolism of cells. They are produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam's apple. The gland wraps around the windpipe (trachea) and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly formed by two wings (lobes) and attached by a middle part (isthmus). The thyroid gland removes iodine from the blood (which comes mostly from a diet of foods such as seafood, bread, and salt) and uses it to produce thyroid hormones.

什么是甲状腺激素?

甲状腺激素促进细胞代。它由甲状腺生。甲状腺位于下部,甲状骨下方。腺体包裹着气管,形状似蝴蝶,由两个翅膀(腺叶)和中部分(峡部)接。甲状腺从血液中取碘(大多数来自食物比如海,面包,)并利用其生甲状腺素。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Thyroid Hormone Regulation – The Chain of Command

The thyroid itself is regulated by another gland located in the brain, called the pituitary. In turn, the pituitary is regulated in part by thyroid hormone that is circulating in the blood (a "feedback" effect of thyroid hormone on the pituitary gland) and in part by another gland called the hypothalamus, also a part of the brain. The hypothalamus releases a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which sends a signal to the pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In turn, TSH sends a signal to the thyroid to release thyroid hormones. If overactivity of any of these three glands occurs, an excessive amount of thyroid hormones can be produced, thereby resulting in hyperthyroidism. The rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the pituitary gland. If there is an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone circulating in the body to allow for normal functioning, the release of TSH is increased by the pituitary in an attempt to stimulate the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormone. In contrast, when there is an excessive amount of circulating thyroid hormone, the release of TSH is reduced as the pituitary attempts to decrease the production of thyroid hormone.

甲状腺素的调节-挥轴

甲状腺本身受大中的另一个腺体-垂体的调节。反来,垂体也部分受血液中的甲状腺素的调节(甲状腺素垂体的反馈调节),另一部分受同位于大中的另一个腺体,下丘调节。下丘分泌一种激素叫做促甲状腺素放激素(TRH),它出信号使垂体分泌促甲状腺素(TSH)。接下来,TSH刺激甲状腺分泌甲状腺素。如果三个腺体任何一个度活,可能就会多的甲状腺激素,致甲亢。甲状腺激素的生受垂体的调节,如果循中的甲状腺激素少,不足以足功能需要,垂体就会TSH,刺激甲状腺生更多的激素。反之相反。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

What Causes Hyperthyroidism?

Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include:

 

Graves' Disease

Functioning adenoma ("hot nodule") and Toxic Multinodular Goiter (TMNG)

Excessive intake of thyroid hormones

Abnormal secretion of TSH

Thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland)

Excessive iodine intake

We'll take a look at the causes of each of these conditions on the following slides.

哪些原因会致甲亢?

 

的原因包括:

 

Graves’

功能性腺瘤(热结节)和毒性多结节性甲状腺TMNG

甲状腺激素的量吸收

TSH的非正常分泌

甲状腺炎(甲状腺的炎症性疾病)

多的碘吸收

接下来我一一来了解些情况

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Graves' Disease

 

Graves' disease, which is caused by a generalized overactivity of the thyroid gland, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. In this condition, the thyroid gland usually is renegade, which means it has lost the ability to respond to the normal control by the pituitary gland via TSH. Graves' disease is hereditary and is up to five times more common among women than men. The triggers for Graves' disease include stress, smoking, radiation to the neck, medications, and infectious organisms such as viruses. Graves' disease can be diagnosed by a nuclear medicine thyroid scan and blood test. Graves' disease may be associated with eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy) and skin lesions (dermopathy).

Graves'

Graves'病,由甲状腺功能的度活跃导致,是甲亢最常的原因。在此情况下,甲状腺常不受制,就是垂体通TSH调节作用失去反病有遗传性,女性好约为男性的5倍。因包括紧张,吸烟,部放射史,物史,和微生物比如病毒感染。Graves'断需要行核素描和血清学检测。它常有眼部(Graves'眼病)和皮肤(Graves'皮肤病)病

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Functioning Adenoma and Toxic Multinodular Goiter

The thyroid gland (like many other areas of the body) becomes lumpier as we get older. In the majority of cases, these lumps do not produce thyroid hormones and require no treatment. Occasionally, a nodule may become "autonomous," which means that it does not respond to pituitary regulation via TSH and produces thyroid hormones independently. This becomes more likely if the nodule is larger than 3 cm. When there is a single nodule that is independently producing thyroid hormones, it is called a functioning nodule. If there is more than one functioning nodule, the term toxic, multinodular goiter is used. Functioning nodules may be readily detected with a thyroid scan.

功能性腺瘤和毒性多结节性甲状腺

甲状腺随年结节样变(身体中很多其他部位也一)。大多数情况下,结节不会生甲状腺素,也无需治。偶然情况下,一个结节自主能,就是垂体通TSH调节不再有反,独立地生甲状腺激素。3cm以上的结节尤其会出现这种情况。当一个单发结节能独立地生甲状腺激素,它被称之高功能结节。如果有多个这样结节毒性多结节性甲状腺。功能性结节易于被甲状腺发现

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Excessive Intake of Thyroid Hormones

Taking too much thyroid hormone medication is actually quite common. Excessive doses of thyroid hormones frequently go undetected due to the lack of follow-up of patients taking thyroid medicine. Other persons may be abusing the drug in an attempt to achieve other goals such as weight loss. These patients can be identified by having a low uptake of radioactively-labeled iodine (radioiodine) on a thyroid scan.

甲状腺素

多的甲状腺素实际上非常普遍。如果的患者缺乏随访,就会种情况。其他一些人可能尝试减肥等其他目,也会该药些患者行甲状腺,可因放射性碘入率地下而被断。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Abnormal Secretion of TSH

A tumor in the pituitary gland may produce an abnormally high secretion of TSH (the thyroid stimulating hormone). This leads to excessive signaling to the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. This condition is very rare and can be associated with other abnormalities of the pituitary gland. To identify this disorder, an endocrinologist performs elaborate tests to assess the release of TSH.

TSH分泌异常

垂体瘤可能会生很高水平的TSH(促甲状腺激素)。它会多的信号使甲状腺分泌甲状腺素。种情况很少,可能和垂体的其它异常情况有关。了确,内分泌科的医生会做很多检查TSH的分泌。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid)

Inflammation of the thyroid gland may occur after a viral illness (subacute thyroiditis). This condition is association with a fever and a sore throat that is often painful on swallowing. The thyroid gland is also tender to touch. There may be generalized neck aches and pains. Inflammation of the gland with an accumulation of white blood cells known as lymphocytes (lymphocytic thyroiditis) may also occur. In both of these conditions, the inflammation leaves the thyroid gland "leaky," so that the amount of thyroid hormone entering the blood is increased. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is most common after a pregnancy and can actually occur in up to 8% of women after delivery. In these cases, the hyperthyroid phase can last from 4 to 12 weeks and is often followed by a hypothyroid (low thyroid output) phase that can last for up to 6 months. The majority of affected women return to a state of normal thyroid function. Thyroiditis can be diagnosed by a thyroid scan.

甲状腺炎(甲状腺的炎症)

甲状腺的炎症可以生在病毒性疾病之后(急性甲状腺炎),伴有发热和咽痛,吞咽疼痛。甲状腺有触痛,通常有部不适。甲状腺炎症伴随伴随淋巴胞升高(称淋巴胞性甲状腺炎)也可生。在些情况下,炎症会使腺体出漏洞入血液的甲状腺激素会增加。淋巴胞性甲状腺炎在怀孕后的女很多实际上可8%女。在些情况下,甲亢状4-12周,之后常出甲低状(甲状腺激素出低下),持到近6月。大多数受染的女性会恢复到正常状。甲状腺炎可以由甲状腺断。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Excessive Iodine Intake

The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. An excess of iodine may cause hyperthyroidism. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is usually seen in patients who already have an underlying abnormal thyroid gland. Certain medications, such as amiodarone (Cordarone), which is used in the treatment of heart problems, contain a large amount of iodine and may be associated with thyroid function abnormalities.

甲状腺利用碘来合成甲状腺激素。多的碘会致甲亢。碘诱发的甲亢常于甲状腺有潜在疾患的患者。某些物,比如胺碘(可达),一种治病的物,含有大量的碘,和甲状腺功能异常有关。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is suggested by several signs and symptoms; however, patients with mild disease usually experience no symptoms. In patients older than 70 years, the typical signs and symptoms also may be absent. In general, the symptoms become more obvious as the degree of hyperthyroidism increases. The symptoms usually are related to an increase in the metabolic rate of the body. In older patients, irregular heart rhythms and heart failure can occur. In its most severe form, untreated hyperthyroidism may result in "thyroid storm," a condition involving high blood pressure, fever, and heart failure. Mental changes, such as confusion and delirium, may also occur.

甲亢的症状有哪些?

甲亢有一些症状和体征:然而,度患者通常没有表70以上的患者可能没有典型的床表。通常,甲亢的程度很,症状得更加明。症状通常和机体的代率增加有关。在老年患者,可能出心律失常和心衰。最重的情形,未的甲亢可能致甲状腺危象,伴有高血发热,和心衰。精神改,比如意模糊和瞻望,也可出

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?

Hyperthyroidism can be suspected in patients with: tremors, excessive sweating, smooth velvety skin, fine hair, rapid heart rate, and an enlarged thyroid gland. There may be puffiness around the eyes and a characteristic stare due to the elevation of the upper eyelids. Advanced symptoms are easily detected, but early symptoms, especially in the elderly, may be quite inconspicuous. In all cases, a blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis. The main tool for detection is measurement of the blood TSH level. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland. Although the blood tests mentioned previously can confirm the presence of excessive thyroid hormone, they do not point to a specific cause. If there is obvious involvement of the eyes, a diagnosis of Graves' disease is almost certain. A combination of antibody screening (for Graves' disease) and a thyroid scan using radioactively-labelled iodine (which concentrates in the thyroid gland) can help diagnose the underlying thyroid disease. These investigations are chosen on a case-by-case basis.

如何断甲亢?

有以下表现应该怀疑甲亢:发颤,多汗,皮肤光滑柔头发稀少,心动过速,和甲状腺增大。可能会有眼周皮肤肿胀,并因上眼抬高而出特有的凝展期症状很容易发现,但是早期症状,尤其在老年人,会很不明。所有的情况都需要血液学检查以明确断。检测的主要手段是血液TSH水平。如前所述,TSH由垂体分泌。血液检测可以明确高甲状腺激素水平的存在,但并不能指出具体的病因。如果明确累及眼部,基本上可以得出Graves'病的断。如果合抗体筛查Graves病)和放描(碘在甲状腺集)可以帮助断潜在的甲状腺疾病。检测在个体化的基用。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

How is hyperthyroidism treated?

The options for treating hyperthyroidism include:

 

Treating the symptoms

Antithyroid drugs

Radioactive iodine

Surgery

如何治甲亢?

疗选择包括:

症治

抗甲状腺

碘放射

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Treating Symptoms

There are medications available to immediately treat the symptoms caused by excessive thyroid hormones, such as a rapid heart rate. One of the main classes of drugs used to treat these symptoms is a beta-blocker [for example, propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor)]. These medications counteract the effect of thyroid hormone to increase metabolism, but they do not alter the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. A doctor determines which patients to treat based on a number of variables including the underlying cause of hyperthyroidism, the age of the patient, the size of the thyroid gland, and the presence of coexisting medical illnesses.

症治

物可以迅速治疗过多甲状腺激素引起的症状,比如心动过速。主要的一类药物是塔阻滞【比如,心得安(普),阿替洛(天敏),美托洛Lopressor)】。物能抵甲状腺素增加代率的作用,但他并不降低血液中的甲状腺素水平。医生决定哪些患者需要治取决于一系列参数,包括甲亢的潜在原因,患者年,甲状腺大小和共病。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Antithyroid Drugs

There are two main antithyroid drugs available for use in the United States, methimazole (Tapazole) and propylthiouracil ( PTU). These drugs accumulate in the thyroid tissue and block production of thyroid hormones. PTU also blocks the conversion of T4 hormone to the more metabolically active T3 hormone. The major risk of these medications is occasional suppression of production of white blood cells (needed to fight infection) by the bone marrow (agranulocytosis). If patients develop a fever, a sore throat, or any signs of infection while taking methimazole or propylthiouracil, they should see a doctor immediately. While a concern, the actual risk of developing agranulocytosis is less than 1%. The dose of antithyroid medication is adjusted to maintain the patient in as close to a normal thyroid state as possible (euthyroid). Usually, long-term antithyroid therapy is only used for patients with Graves' disease.

抗甲状腺

美国有的抗甲物有两种,甲硫咪(他巴)和丙基硫氧嘧啶PTU)。物在甲状腺聚并阻断甲状腺素的合成。PTU能阻断T4向更具活性的T3化。物的主要风险是偶的白胞合成障碍(需要抗感染治),由骨髓抑制引起(粒胞缺乏症)。如果患者服现发热,咽痛或者任何感染表,他们应该立即看医生。令人担心的粒胞缺乏症实际发生率低于1%。抗甲状腺物的应调整在甲功尽量接近正常。通常,期的服药仅见Graves'病患者。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Radioactive Iodine

Radioactive iodine is given orally (either by pill or liquid) on a one-time basis to ablate a hyperactive gland. The iodine given for ablative treatment is different from the iodine used in a scan. Radioactive iodine is given after a routine iodine scan, and uptake of the iodine is determined to confirm hyperthyroidism. The radioactive iodine is picked up by the active cells in the thyroid and destroys them. Since iodine is only picked up by thyroid cells, the destruction is local, and there are no widespread side effects with this therapy. Radioactive iodine ablation has been safely used for over 50 years, and the only major reasons for not using it are pregnancy and breast-feeding. In general, more than 80% of patients are cured with a single dose of radioactive iodine. It takes between 8 to 12 weeks for the thyroid to become normal after therapy.

 

Permanent hypothyroidism is the major complication of this form of treatment. While a temporary hypothyroid state may be seen up to six months after treatment with radioactive iodine, if it persists longer than six months, thyroid replacement therapy (with T4 or T3) usually is begun.

放射性碘

放射性碘一次性口服(丸或水)以清除度活的甲状腺。清甲治量有于碘描,放射性碘在常描后予,根据碘取量来确有无甲亢。放射性碘被活的甲状腺取从而使之破坏。碘能被甲状腺取,破坏也在局部,所以没有全身性并症。放射性碘切除已安全地使用了50多年,唯一不能用它的主要原因是怀孕和哺乳。一般情况下,80%的患者一次碘切除即可。治8-12周,甲状腺可恢复正常。

永久性的甲低是的主要并症。暂时性的甲低可以到6个月,如果超6个月,通常需要替代治T4T3)。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Surgery

Surgery to partially remove the thyroid gland (partial thyroidectomy) was once a common form of treatment for hyperthyroidism. The goal is to remove the thyroid tissue that was producing the excessive thyroid hormone. However, if too much tissue is removed, an inadequate production of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) may result. In this case, thyroid replacement therapy is begun. The major complication of surgery is disruption of the surrounding tissue, including the nerves supplying the vocal cords and the four tiny glands in the neck that regulate calcium levels in the body (the parathyroid glands). Accidental removal of these glands may result in low calcium levels and require calcium replacement therapy. With the introduction of radioactive iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs, surgery for hyperthyroidism is not as common as it used to be.

部分切除甲状腺(甲状腺部分切除)曾是治甲亢的常用手段。的是切掉生甲状腺素的部分。然而,如果切除的太多,会致功能低下。在此情况下,需要甲状腺替代治。手的主要并症是周围组织损伤,包括支配声的神部的四个小腺体,可以调节体内的水平(甲状旁腺)。意外切除些腺体可能致低,需要替代治。使用放射碘治和抗甲状腺物后,手就不像以前那普遍了。

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

What's Best for You?

If you are concerned that you may have an excess amount of thyroid hormone, you should mention your symptoms to your doctor. A simple blood test is the first step in the diagnosis. From there, both you and your doctor can decide what the next step should be. If treatment is warranted, it is important for you to let your doctor know of any concerns or questions you have about the options available. Remember that thyroid disease is very common, and in good hands, the diseases that cause an excess of thyroid hormones can be easily diagnosed and treated.

什么你是最好的?

如果你担心可能甲状腺激素多,你应该跟医生描述你的症状。一个简单的血液检测断的第一步。通此,你和你的医生能决定下一步干什么。如果需要治你来重要的事情是要你的医生知道你在有治疗选择方面的担心或者疑住甲状腺疾病很普遍,行家而言,生甲亢的原因很容易被断和治

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 
 第四军医大学西京医院全军耳鼻咽喉-头颈外科中心 版权所有  Copyright © 2007
陕ICP备06008626号-13